Know in detail about Panchayati Raj system in India, articles related to it and Panchayati Raj Act.

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Panchayati Raj

The Panchayati Raj system in India represents rural local self-government aimed at promoting rural development. Its main objective revolves around empowering villages through Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) to govern themselves. These institutions are entrusted with various functions, including promoting economic growth, promoting social justice and implementing both Central and State Government schemes covering 29 subjects mentioned in the Eleventh Schedule.

While local governance through Panchayati Raj has been a long-standing feature in India, it gained formal recognition as the third tier of the country’s federal democracy with the passage of the 73rd Amendment Act in 1992.

Structure of Panchayati Raj System

The structure of Panchayati Raj is outlined in the 73rd Amendment to the Indian Constitution, which came into force in 1993. Panchayati Raj system consists of three levels, let us discuss them below.

  • Village Panchayat: Gram Panchayat, functioning at the village level, is the basic unit of the Panchayati Raj system. It is headed by a Sarpanch who is elected by the members of the Gram Panchayat.
  • Block Panchayat or Panchayat Committee: Above the Gram Panchayat is the Panchayat Samiti, which works at the block level. It consists of the Sarpanches of those Gram Panchayats as well as elected representatives of the Gram Panchayats within the block.
  • District Council: Zilla Parishad is the apex level institution at the district level. Its composition includes representatives elected from Panchayat Samitis functioning within the district as well as Members of Parliament (MPs) and Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) representing the district.

Features of Panchayati Raj System

  • All voters who are listed in the electoral records and are residents of a village included in the Panchayat at the village level, gram sabha Let’s make. The smallest and only permanent unit of the Panchayati Raj system is the Gram Sabha. As per relevant law, state legislature Establishes the rights and duties of the Gram Sabha.
  • Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) Seats are earmarked for them as well as for Panchayat Presidents at all levels in proportion to their numbers.
  • of total seats A third To be reserved for women. SCs and STs One-third of the seats reserved for women are also reserved for women. This rule also applies to the post of Chairman at all levels (Article 243D), The reserved Panchayat seats may be assigned to different constituencies by rotation.
  • There is a consistent policy, each term of which five years Lasts long. Before the term ends, new elections must be held. Elections must be held within six months of dissolution (Article 243E),
  • Panchayats as per law Economic development and social justice Eleventh Schedule, which is responsible for developing schemes for (Article 243G) extends to various levels of the Panchayat including the subjects listed in.

States and Capitals

Panchayati Raj Day

By Ministry of Panchayati Raj 24 April celebrated annually Panchayati Raj Day, respects the 73rd Amendment Act of 1992 to the Constitution, which came into force in 1993. This day is celebrated at national level Democratic decentralization and local self-governance Respects.

Panchayati Raj Article

Panchayati Raj Act eleventh schedule Connects, in which the Panchayats 29 functional items together with Part IX, “Panchayat” is included in the Constitution. included in Part IX of the Constitution Article 243 to Article 243 O Till now Panchayati Raj articles can be seen. of the constitution Article 40 Directs the State to organize Gram Panchayats and give them powers and authority to enable them to function as self-governants. The Amendment Act gives a physical form to this Directive.

Union Territories in India

Panchayati Raj Act

Parliament approves two amendments to the Constitution, to provide for rural local bodies (panchayats) 73rd constitutional amendment and for urban local bodies (municipalities) 74th constitutional amendmentthey were called “self-government institutions”.

With the passage of the Panchayati Raj Act, the Panchayati Raj system is now governed by the equitable provisions of the Constitution, and each state is required to implement it. Additionally, elections to Panchayati Raj institutions will be held without interference from the state government.

Main features of the Act

  • gram sabha
  • Three-tier system: Establishment of three-tier Panchayati Raj system in the states at village, intermediate and district level.
  • Election of members and Chairman: Members of all levels of Panchayati Raj are directly elected. At the intermediate and district levels, presidents are elected by indirectly elected members and at the village level, presidents are elected as determined by the state government. The minimum age to contest Panchayati Raj elections is 21 years.
  • Reservation of seats-
      • SC And ST For: Reservation is provided at all three levels on the basis of their population percentage.
      • For women: Not less than one-third of the total number of seats to be reserved for women, Not less than one-third of the total number of posts to be reserved for women for Chairpersons at all levels of Panchayats.
      • Provision has also been made for State Legislatures to decide on reservation of seats at any level of Panchayat or the office of Speaker in favor of backward classes.
  • Duration of Panchayat: The Act provides for a five-year tenure for all levels of Panchayats.
  • State Election Commission: It is established in every state to conduct elections for Panchayati Raj institutions.
  • Powers and functions: The State legislature may confer on Panchayats such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as institutions of self-government.
  • Finance Commission: State Finance Commission is constituted in every state after every five years. It reviews the financial position of the Panchayats and provides recommendations.
  • Exempt states and territories: The Act does not apply to the states of Nagaland, Meghalaya and Mizoram and certain other areas. These areas include:
    1. Scheduled areas and tribal areas in the states
    2. The hilly area of ​​Manipur for which a district council exists
    3. Darjeeling district of West Bengal for which Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council exists.
      However, Parliament may extend this Part to these areas, provided it specifies exemptions and amendments. Thus, PESA Act was enacted.

Panchayati Raj in India

For the first time in India the system called Panchayati Raj October 2, 1959 To Rajasthan It was started by the then Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. implementer of Panchayati Raj system in India Second state Andhra Pradesh Was. Most of the states established this Panchayati Raj system in their states. However, there were wide differences between them. Some states chose a two-tier structure, while others used a three- or four-tier system. Additionally, there were regional variations in the manner in which power was transferred.

The Government of India constituted several committees to give recommendations on Panchayati Raj. Balwant Rai Mehta Committee (1957) was the first committee to recommend the establishment of a scheme of ‘democratic decentralisation’, which eventually came to be known as Panchayati Raj in India. Ashok Mehta Committee (1977), Hanumant Rao Committee (1983), G.V.K. Rao Committee (1985), L.M. Singhvi Committee (1986), and P.K. Thungan Committee (1989) Some of the most important committees constituted by the government are.

Panchayati Raj System in India: Functions

The main functions of Panchayati Raj system in India are as follows:

  • Spreading Awareness: Panchayati Raj is responsible for spreading awareness and educating people about various issues, their rights, government schemes and others.
  • Local Governance: The primary objective of the Panchayati Raj system is to facilitate local self-governance at various levels including villages, intermediate (blocks) and districts. It empowers villagers by involving them in decision-making processes and allowing them to take responsibility for the management of local affairs.
  • Dispute Resolution: Panchayati Raj is responsible for resolving disputes at the local level. They handle cases related to land disputes, property rights, village level conflicts and other civil disputes.
  • Planning and Development: The Panchayat is responsible for formulating and implementing plans that promote development at the local level. This includes agricultural development, rural industrial development, infrastructure development, and more.

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