Harappan Civilization (Indus Valley Civilization)

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The Harappan Civilization, also known as the Indus Valley Civilization, is the oldest known urban culture of the Indian subcontinent. There are differences of opinion regarding the exact time period of the Harappan civilization, but it can be broadly concluded that it began to flourish during 2500 BCE and began to fade away during 1900 BCE.

Harappan Introduction

of civilization recognition for the first time 1921 in punjab in the Harappan region (hence it was initially called the Harappan Civilization) and then in the Sindh (Sind) region in 1922 near the Indus River It took place in Mohenjo-daro (Mohenjo-daro). Both sites are in present-day Pakistan. It was Daya Ram Sahni who first discovered the Harappan sites in 1921.

Harappan cities were known for their urban planning, baked brick houses, elaborate drainage systems, water supply systems, clusters of large non-residential buildings, and techniques of handicrafts and metallurgy.

of Harappan civilization time period

There are differences of opinion regarding the exact time period of the Harappan civilization, but it can be broadly concluded that it began to flourish during 2500 BCE and began to fade away during 1900 BCE.

Map of Harappan Civilization

The Indus Valley Civilization was roughly contemporary with other riverine civilizations of the ancient world: Ancient Egypt along the Nile River, Mesopotamia along the Euphrates and Tigris, and the drainage basins of the Yellow River and Yangtze in China.

It extended from Balochistan in the west to western Uttar Pradesh of India in the east, from northeastern Afghanistan in the north to the Indian state of Gujarat in the south. This can be seen in the map below:

Harappan Civilization in Haryana

Many Harappan sites have been excavated in present-day Haryana. Some of the major ones include Rakhigarhi, Banavali, Siswal etc.

The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) has conducted new excavations in and around the old planned Harappan city at Rakhigarhi.

Bhirdana, the oldest site of the Indus Valley Civilization And Rakhigarhi, the biggest place Located in Haryana state of India. Bhirdana or Birhana, a small village in Fatehabad district of Haryana, seasonal Ghaggar ,Saraswati, of the river Located on the shore. The Bhirdana site is said to be the oldest Saraswati-Indus Valley Civilization site, dating back to 7570-6200 BCE. The ancient objects found from this site include pottery, clothes, copper chisels, arrow heads, spear heads, steatite beads, faience (clay and ceramic vessels), terracotta and cosh, copper and terracotta bangles, half -Contains precious stones and pearls etc.

about rakhigarhi

Archaeological excavations at the site have revealed the Mature Harappan phase, characterized by planned settlement in mud-brick as well as burnt-brick houses with proper drainage systems. The ceramic industry is represented by red ware, which included dish-on-stand, vase, jar, bowl, beaker, perforated jar, goblet and handi. Animal sacrifice pits made of mud brick and triangular and circular fire altars on mud floors have also been excavated which reflect the ritual system of the Harappans. A cylindrical seal, with five Harappan character figures on one side and a crocodile symbol on the other, is an important discovery at the site.

seals of the Harappan civilization

Thousands of seals have been discovered by archaeologists from Harappan sites. Most of the seals were made of steatite, a type of soft stone. Some of them were also made of terracotta, gold, agate, chert, ivory and faience. The standard Harappan seal was square in shape with dimensions 2X2.

Use of Harappan Civilization Seals

It is believed that the seals were used business objectives Was done for. some seals as a talisman Inmaybe a type of identity card Was also carried as. All the seals contain images of animals with text written in a pictographic script (which has not yet been deciphered). Mainly depicted animals are tiger, elephant, bull, bison, goat etc. Most of the seals have writing on both sides. The writing is in Kharosthi style (right to left). Some seals contain mathematical images and educational objectives Must have been done for. The most famous seal is the Pashupati seal of the Harappan civilization from Mohenjodaro.

Town planning of Harappan civilization

Town planning was the main feature of the Harappan culture. Every city was divided into two main parts. A fort was built on high ground in which the ruling class and the priestly class lived. Human settlements of other sections were spread from the foothills of the fort.

This can be seen in the given pictures:

Its cities had good drainage systems, a well-organized water supply system, street lighting arrangements, watch and ward arrangements to weed out law breakers during the night, special places to dump garbage, in every street Public wells, wells in every house, main roads ranged from 9 feet to 30-34 feet wide and were divided into networks of narrow streets with high efficiency dividing the cities. The building materials used were burnt bricks and sun-dried bricks.

decline of harappan civilization

With time the Harappan civilization began to decline. For example, Mohenjo-Daro, one of the major cities of this civilization, initially flourished on about seventy-five hectares of land, but was later limited to only three hectares. For some reason, the population from Harappa started moving to nearby and outlying cities and places like Punjab, Upper Doab, Haryana etc. But what caused the decline of the Harappan civilization is still a mystery.

Some possible factors that may lead to the decline of civilization are as follows.

arrival of the aryans

It is generally believed that the Aryans were the next settlers. They were skilled fighters, so their attack could have led to the destruction of the Harappan civilization. Even in the epics of the Aryans there is mention of their conquest of great cities. Human remains found during excavations in the Indus Valley point towards some violent cause of their death.

Climate change

The theory of massive climate change or natural disaster seems credible. It turns out that some major climate changes began to occur in the Indus Valley around 2000 BC. These changes led to flooding of plains and cities. Historians have also found evidence to prove this theory.

Decline in rainfall and change in river course

The decline in average rainfall in cities led to desert-like conditions. From this decline in agriculture On which most businesses depended. Due to this, the people of Harappan civilization started moving to some other place due to which the entire civilization collapsed. According to some scholars, the reason for the decline Ghaggar , There is a change in the course of the Harka River Due to which the dryness of the place has increased.

Harappan Civilization in Hindi- FAQs

Q. Which is the largest site of Indus Valley Civilization in India,
Answer: Rakhigarhi is the largest site of the Indus Valley Civilization in India. It is located in the Haryana state of India.

Q. In what shape were Harappan seals generally found?,
Answer: The standard Harappan seal was square in shape with dimensions 2X2.

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