What is joint rupture?

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“Sandhi Vishva” is an important process of linguistics which plays an important role in the formation of language. It is a method in which a new word is created by combining two or more words. The main objective of this process is to make the language simple and accessible. In this article we will consider in detail the meaning, types, and uses of joint rupture.

definition of treaty

The change that occurs due to the combination of two adjacent letters is called Sandhi. Sandhi is a combination of the last letter of the first word and the first letter of the second word. Following are examples of treaties:

  • Sundar + Aakar = Sundarakaar (Here, the low vowel of “Aa” changes into “A”, and the low vowel of “Da” changes into “Dha”) respectively.
  • अनुप + जाती = अनुपजाती (Here, the high vowel of “प” changes to “फ”)
  • Akshar + Gyan = Akshargyan (Here, the high vowel of “R” changes to “Rya”)
  • Agni + Adhishthana = Agnidhishthana (Here, the low vowel of “A” changes to “Aa”)
  • Aadi + Utyaksha = AadiUtpatti (Here, the low vowel of “e” changes to “a”)

These examples show how sandhi creates new words through changes in letter spacing.

definition of rupture

The disorder caused by the combination of two letters is called Sandhi. Understanding this product and separating the letters into separate ones is a breach of contract. It can also be understood in this way – separating the word formed by combining two words is called Sandhi Vishchha. Following are examples of break-up:

  • Akarishwar = Akar + Ishwar
  • Paruttar = Par + Answer
  • Forest Colony = Forest + Colony
  • Dhanupyoga = wealth + use
  • Upendraditya = Upendra + Aditya

type of treaty

Scientifically, sandhi disintegration is the change in the phonetics or alphabet of words. This change usually occurs by combining two words, and this leads to the formation of new words. Through the study of Sandhi Vishva, we can understand various aspects in the structure of language and get help in understanding the rules of language. There are three types of treaties.

  • vowel sandhi
  • consonant sandhi
  • dissolution treaty

vowel sandhi

Swara Sandhi: When two vowels join each other, Swara Sandhi occurs. In this, there are both regular and irregular types of vowel combinations.

For example, in “Dev + E = Devi”, “Dev” and “E” are combined to form “Devi”. Here “Y” and “E” combine and the pronunciation of “Y” becomes “Vay”. There are 5 types of vowel sandhi.

Types of vowel sandhi and its rules
distinction Rule Example
long treaty If the vowels 'Aa', 'I', 'U' come after Haswa or long 'Aa', 'I', 'U' respectively, then by combining both they become long Aa, Ee, Oo.
  • Devadhivati ​​(god+overlord)
  • charitable (religion+artha)
  • Girish (Giri+ish)
  • Girindra (Gir+Indra)
  • गुनालय (गुन+आलाय)
property treaty If after A and Aa the vowels I or Ee, U or Oo and Ri come, then when both of them come together they become A, O and Ar respectively.
  • Jalormi (water+heat)
  • Khagesh (Khag+Ish)
  • public utility (public + utility)
  • Mahotsav (Maha + Festival)
  • Rajrishi (Raj+Rishi)
growth spurt If A or Ai comes after A or Aa then it becomes 'Ai' and if O and Au come then it becomes Au.
  • ack (one+one)
  • Devaishwarya (Dev+Aishwarya)
  • Dharmaikya (Dharma + Unity)
  • Jalous (water+dew)
  • Vanaushadhi (new+aushadhi)
yan sandhi If different vowels come after I, Ee, U, U and Ri, then E and E become 'Y' and U and U become Va and Ri.
  • metallic (metal+ik)
  • Gurvaudan (Guru+Odan)
  • Etc (Iti+Adi)
  • Manvantara (Manu+Antar)
  • Nadyarpan (river+arpan)
etc. treaty If the vowels A, Ai, O, Au match with other vowels, then A becomes Ay, Ai becomes Aay, O becomes Ava and Au becomes Aav.
  • Gurvodarya (Guru + Audarya)
  • Madhvodan (Madhu+Odan)
  • Hero (Nai+Ak)
  • holy (po+perfume)
  • saiak(sai+ak)

consonant sandhi

Consonant sandhi, the disorder that arises due to the combination of vowels with consonants or consonants with vowels, is called consonant sandhi.

For example, in Vayu + Aakar = VayuAakar, the word “VayuAakar” has been formed by combining the vowel letter ‘Aa’ with the consonant letter ‘Y’ in the word “Vayu”.

rules of consonant sandhi
Rule Example
If any vowel or the third or fourth letter of any class or Ya, Ra, La, Va comes before the first letter of the touch consonants i.e. K, Ch, T, T, then K.Ch.T. T. In place of प, there is the third letter of the same class i.e. ग in place of क, J in place of च, ड in place of त, द in place of त and 'ब' in place of प;
  • Dik + Ambar = Digambar
  • Vaak + Ish = Vaagish
  • Shat + Anan = Shadanan
  • truth + conduct = morality
If any nasal consonant comes before the first letter of the tactile consonants i.e. क्, च, त, त, प, then in its place comes the fifth letter of the same class;
  • speech + speech = speech
  • Shat + Maas = Shanmas
  • Ut + Matt = Mad
  • Ap + May = Ammay
When 'Ch' comes in front of a short or long vowel, then 'Ch' before 'Ch' increases;
  • circle + hole = circle
  • aa + chadan = cover
  • post + hole = post break
  • home + hole = home hole
If any tactile consonant comes before म, then in place of म, the fifth letter of the same group becomes;
  • Sam + Chay = Accumulation
  • Gham + Ta = Ghanta
  • Sam + Tosh = Satisfaction
  • Swayam + Bhu = Swayambhu
If any internal or hot consonant comes before Ma i.e. Ya, Ra, La, V, Sh, Sh, S, Ha, then Ma changes into Anuswar;
  • Sam + Saar = Samsara
  • Sam + Yoga = Combination
  • Swayam + Var = Swayamvar
  • Sam + Raksha = Protection
If 'J' or 'झ' comes before 'त' and 'द' then 'झ', 'झ', 'झ' change into 'झ';
  • ut + jwal = bright
  • Vipad + Jaal = Vipajjal
  • Sat + Jan = Sajjan
  • Sat + Jaati = Sajjaati
If sh comes before t, d then t becomes cha and sh becomes ch. If 't' comes before 'd' then 't' becomes 'd' and 'ha' becomes 'dha';
  • Sat + Chit = True
  • tat + body = body
  • Ut + Haar = Salvation
  • tat + hit = taddit
If 'n' comes after 'ch' or 'j' then 'ya' becomes 'yanja' in place of 'n';
  • Yaj + Na = Yagya
  • यच + न = याजा
If s comes before any vowel except अ, आ then most often श becomes श in place of श;
  • Abhi + Sec = Abhishek
  • odd + even = odd
  • ni + sedh = prohibition
  • Su + Supta = Sushupta
When t or tha comes after ष, it becomes ट and थ respectively in its place;
  • Aakrishta + T = Aakrishta
  • Tush + T = Satisfied
  • page + th = page
  • शष + थ = शस्त
After 'Ri', 'R', 'Rsh' comes 'Na' and in between any vowel from Ka class, Pa class, Anuswar Ya, Va, Ha, comes, then 'Na' = 'Na';
  • भार + अन = भारन
  • Bhush + An = Bhushan
  • circumference + value = magnitude
  • Ri + Na = Debt

dissolution treaty

Visarga Sandhi: The disorder that arises from the combination of vowels or consonants with Visarga is called Visarga Sandhi.

For example, Manah + Anukul = agreeable and Nih + Paap = Sinless.

Its main rules are as follows-

rules of dissolution of marriage
Rule Example
If Sha, Sha, Sa come before Visarga then it changes into Sh, A, S, respectively.
  • Nih + Dekh = undoubtedly
  • Nih + Sang = Nissang
  • selfless + selfless = selfless
If there is e or u before visarga and r comes after it, then visarga will disappear and e and u will change into long e, oo.
  • nih + rav = noiseless
  • nih + disease = disease
  • nih + rasa = dull
If 'cha-cha', 'ta-tha' and 'ta-tha' come after visarga, then visarga changes into 'sh', 'sh', 's' respectively.
  • Nih + Tar = Nistar
  • duh + character = bad character
  • Nih + Chhal = innocent
If K, Kha, Pa, Pha remain after Visarga, there is no disorder (change) in Visarga.
  • morning + time = morning
  • Payah + Paan = Payahpaan
If before the Visarga there is any vowel other than 'A' or 'Aa' and after it there is the third, fourth and fifth letter of the group or any of the letters Ya, Ra, La, Va, then the Visarga changes to 'R'.
  • nih + guna = nirguna
  • Nih + base = baseless
  • nih + dhan = poor
If any vowel other than A, Aa comes before Visarga and any other vowel comes after it, it also changes into Visarga R.
  • nih + eh = innocent
  • Nih + Remedy = Remedy
  • nih + arthak = meaningless
If A comes before Visarga and after that Ya, Ra, La, Va or Ha come then Visarga disappears and Visarga changes into 'O'.
  • Manah + Rath = Desire
  • Purah + Hit = Priest
  • Manah + Rum = Delectable
If I or U comes before Visarga and after it any letter from K, Kha, P, Pha comes then Visarga changes to 'श'
  • nih + karun = unkind
  • Nih + sin = sinless
  • Nih + kapat = honest

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